Guide World Yearbook of Education 1984: Women and Education

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Summary First published in Request an e-inspection copy. The Bookshelf application offers access: She went on to teach the philosophy of education at Columbia University until In she held the A. Noddings has been a member of the Kappa Delta Pi Laureate chapter and holds many other awards and recognitions.

Nel Noddings was deeply influenced by her own experience of being taught. Nel Noddings herself has listed three categories of things that she knows matter to her because of observing herself: Feminists, she commented, sometimes find it hard to admit such things matter to them.

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Nel Noddings is closely identified with the promotion of the ethics of care, — the argument that caring should be a foundation for ethical decision-making. Her argument starts from the position that care is basic in human life — that all people want to be cared for Noddings What caring actually means and entails is not that easy to establish. Receptive attention is an essential characteristic of a caring encounter.

World Yearbook of Education: Women and Education: 1984 by Taylor & Francis Ltd (Hardback, 2005)

The carer is open to what the cared-for is saying and might be experiencing and is able to reflect upon it. However, there is also something else here — motivational displacement. The carer thus responds to the cared-for in ways that are, hopefully, helpful. Caring involves connection between the carer and the cared-for and a degree of reciprocity; that is to say that both gain from the encounter in different ways and both give.

Nel Noddings helpfully, also, highlights the distinction between caring-for and caring-about. Thus far, we have been looking largely at caring-for — face-to-face encounters in which one person cares directly for another. Caring-about is something more general — and takes us more into the public realm. We may be concerned about the suffering of those in poor countries and wish to do something about it such as giving to a development charity.

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One assents with just so much enthusiasm. However, in her later works Nel Noddings has argued that caring-about needs more attention. We learn first what it means to be cared-for. This caring-about, Noddings argues, is almost certainly the foundation for our sense of justice.

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The key, central to care theory, is this: Although the preferred form of caring is cared-for, caring-about can help in establishing, maintaining, and enhancing it. Those who care about others in the justice sense must keep in mind that the objective is to ensure that caring actually occurs. Caring-about is empty if it does not culminate in caring relations.

From this we can see that caring-about is a significant force in society. As well as being an important feature of our sense of justice, it also contributes to the cultivation of social capital. We learn to care-about, according to Nel Noddings, through our experience of being cared-for. Nel Noddings sees education in its widest sense as being central to the cultivation of caring in society.

Given the above, it is not surprising that she places a special emphasis on the home as a site for educational encounter. Indeed, she views the home as the primary educator and argues for the re-orientation of social policy to this end. This is not to sideline the role of schools but simply to recognize just what the home contributes to the development of children and young people.

As soon as we view the home as the primary educator two major things follow in terms of social policy. Both of these recommendations have far reaching consequences.

Nel Noddings, the ethics of care and education

For example, in the case of the first, while some governments have attempted to ensure that there are something like adequate material resources in homes where there are children, there is little evidence of policymakers seriously grappling with how attentive love might be fostered. Similarly, the question of education for home life is not normally addressed in anything like an adequate form. Some attention is paid to personal, social and life education — but it generally remains woefully inadequate when set against the demands of care theory.

A further significant element here is the direction of a great deal of educational philosophy and theory. While it is possible to see what place education for home life might have in this and the extent to which caring-for is linked to the cultivation of caring-about the way in which education is often discussed in terms of public life can be seen as not taking full account of what might be needed for personal flourishing. This has far reaching consequences and takes us into the arena of informal education — and the appreciation and facility to move beyond understandings of education that are centred around notions such as curriculum into more conversational and incidental forms.

Nel Noddings has argued that education from the care perspective has four key components: Within a care perspective, not unexpectedly, educators are concerned with the growth of people as carers and cared-fors. Unlike cognitive developmentalists, for example, they are not primarily interested in moral reasoning although there is a recognition that reasoning is important.

Educators have to show in their behaviour what it means to care. The intent is to engage people in dialogue about caring. In addition, it is also important to talk directly about, and explore, our caring — as it can be manifested in very different ways. It can, thus help people to critique and better understand their own relationships and practice. In other words, it allows us to evaluate our attempts to care: Furthermore, and crucially, dialogue contributes to the growth of cared-fors. This particular component, it is suggested, sets caring apart from other approaches to moral education.

In making her case Nel Noddings draws particularly on the work of Martin Buber. He describes confirmation as an act of affirming and encouraging the best in others see Between Man and Man. When we confirm someone, we identify a better self and encourage its development. To do this we must know the other reasonably well. Otherwise we cannot see what the other is really striving for, what ideal he or she may long to make real. Formulas and slogans have no place in confirmation. Rather we recognize something admirable, or at least acceptable, struggling to emerge in each person we encounter.

The goal or attribute must be seen as worthy both by the person trying to achieve it and by us. We do not confirm people in ways we judge to be wrong. Significantly, such confirmation involves trust and continuity. The latter is needed as we need knowledge of the other op.

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Nel Noddings suggests that neither utilitarianism making decisions on the basis of anticipated consequences nor deontology principled reasoning can provide a proper understanding of the way women approached ethical questions and concerns. Natural caring, such as that of a mother for a child, according to Nel Noddings, comes before ethical caring and is preferable to it.

Ethical caring, the relation in which we do meet the other morally… [arises]… out of natural caring — that relation in which we respond as one-caring out of love or natural inclination. It is that condition toward which we long and strive, and it is our longing for caring — to be in that special relationship — that provides the motivation for us to be moral. We want to be moral in order to remain in the caring relation and to enhance the ideal of ourselves as one-caring. She argues that the ethics of care reveals the old distinction between is and ought as a pseudo problem.

We do not have to construct elaborate rationales to explain why human beings ought to treat one another as positively as our situation permits.

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Ethical life is not separate from and alien to the physical world. Because we human beings are in the world, not mere spectators watching from outside it, our social instincts and the reflective elaboration of them are also in the world. Pragmatists and care theorists agree on this. Care theory is seen as reversing Kantian priorities. This means that some of the key questions and issues about her approach are signposted by her. Some might view the emphasis on caring especially in the context of formal education as both presenting a range of potential conflicts with professional frames of reference and as possibly patronizing.